References and Suggested Resources

Luby, S., M. Agboatwalla, D. Feikin, J. Painter, W. Billhimer, A. Altaf, and R. M.Hoekstra. 2005. “Effect of Handwashing on Child Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” The Lancet, Vol. 366, July 16,2005. Clasen, T. F., I. G. Roberts, T. Rabie, W-P Schmidt, and S. Cairncross. 2006.

“Interventions to Improve Water Quality for Preventing Diarrhoea.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2006), Issue 3, Article No. CD004794. Curtis, V., and S. Cairncross. 2003.

“Effect of Washing Hands With Soap on Diarrhoea Risk in the Community: A Systematic Review.” Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, Issue 5, May 2003, pp.275-281. Ensink, J., with V. Curtis (quality assurance). WELL Fact Sheet: Health Impact of Handwashing With Soap.

Accessed online at the WELL website (managed by the Water, Engineering and Development Centre, Loughborough University).

Handwashing.htm. Fewtrell, L., R. B. Kaufmann, D. Kay, W. Enanoria, L. Haller, and J. M. Colford, Jr. 2005. “Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Interventions to Reduce Diarrhoea in Less Developed Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 5, Issue 1, January 2005, pp. 42-52.

The Handwashing Handbook: A Guide for Developing a Hygiene Promotion Program to Increase Handwashing with Soap

Sample Materials for Use in Schools

Scrub Club ( Healthy Schools, Healthy People (HSHP). It’s a SNAP: A Cross-Curricular, School- Wide Education Program for Middle Schools.
Available through the HSHP website at

Citations and Credits:


Cover Art and Global Handwashing Day logo, Landor Associates Peru Handwashing Girls 1, photo by Nga Kim Nguyen/WSP

Section 1

1 UNICEF, State of the World’s Children 2008.

2 Lorna Fewtrell, Kaufmann R.B., Kay D., Enanoria W., Haller L., and Colford, J.M.C., Jr. 2005. “Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 5, Issue 1: 42-52. Also, Curtis, V. and Cairncross, S. 2003. “Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: A systematic review.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 3, May 2003, pp 275-281.

3 WELL Fact Sheet at

Section 2

4 WELL Fact Sheet.

5 WELL Fact Sheet.

6 Lorna Fewtrell et al.

7 WELL Fact Sheet